Law of three stages Auguste Comtethe "Father of Positivism ", pointed out the need to keep society unified as many traditions were diminishing. He was the first person to coin the term sociology.
Parsons developed a general, voluntaristic theory of action, based on influential, imaginative readings of the sociological classics, which he applied to a wide variety of sociological problems. An active figure in his discipline, Parsons was prominent in numerous professional organizations and cofounded the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion.
Parsons trained and influenced many acclaimed scholars, notably specialists in the study of religion such as Robert Bellah, Clifford Geertz, and Benton Johnson. His overall project can be described as an effort to refute a Weberian view of modernity with Durkheimian means. Theoretically, he regarded religion as a source of general images of order and specific societal values, crucial to maintaining minimal coherence in any society.
Historically, Parsons interpreted American society as successfully institutionalizing certain values rooted in individualistic, ascetic Protestantism under conditions of social differentiation and cultural pluralism.
America represented a phase in the Christianization of the world. He also analyzed social and cultural movements that opposed he thought ineffectively the complex-but-viable framework of America as an open-but-religious society. Like Weber, Parsons was interested in the religious roots of modern culture, which he sought in the implications of the Protestant Reformation.
Similarly, Parsons thought of Christianity, especially in its ascetic Protestant incarnation, as giving special significance to such "worldly" domains as the economic and erotic while at the same time introducing a special tension between worldly motives and transcendent religious aspirations.
But whereas Weber thought that Protestantism was bound to lose its social influence in a rationalized society, Parsons claimed that the Protestant worldview remained significant in modern times. Specifically, he considered dominant American values, described as instrumental activism and institutionalized individualism, to be new, generalized versions of Christian universalism, individualism, and world mastery.
The institutional form of American religion, denominational pluralism, similarly reflected Protestant notions of faith as a matter of individual choice, and organization as a matter of voluntary allegiance.
For Weber, differentiation meant that gods proliferated, and individuals were left to their own devices; for Parsons, differentiation was matched by new modes of integration, and individual choice was guided by shared normative standards. In this sense, Parsons attempted to refute Weber.
Yet until the end, he also adhered to the Weberian insight that Christian ambivalence toward "the world" could not be resolved. The tension between religious culture and economic action could not be eliminated. In this respect, he actually extended a Weberian idea.
In the West, Parsons argued, religion maintained a crucial cultural role precisely in counteracting the potential dominance of economic thought and action.
Were such tension to disappear, one may infer, Western history would come to an end. Without general normative regulation of its institutional framework that inspires binding commitments on the part of members, a society cannot cohere for long.
Such regulation selects possibilities of action, but to be effective requires the operation of many other components of a social structure. Yet the normative pattern that provides a society its identity is the single most important functional facet that Parsons emphasizes throughout.
The Durkheimian influence is evident. Parsons on American Religion and Society American society, Parsons claimed, in fact functioned as a moral community bound by a civil religion that consisted of very general but transcendent values.
Out of Weberian components, America had fashioned a Durkheimian solution to the problems of modernity. Parsons used his evolutionary interpretation of Christian history to bolster this view of America. At the same time, the early Christian church dramatically differentiated itself from the secular society of its time, which both facilitated its long-term survival and its later ability to reshape secular society according to its norms.
This was intensified in the Western, ascetic branch of Protestantism, which maintained the radical dualism between the transcendental and the "world," and thereby stressed the importance of human agency in creating a holy community. Individuals, all with equal religious obligations and capacities, were to participate in building the kingdom, as members of the invisible church in the world.
The visible church "had" to become a voluntary association, a religious development only firmly institutionalized after the formal separation of church and state in America. Because of the importance of associational involvement and the religious legitimation of individual achievement, American individualism was by no means "anarchic" but effectively helped to build a large-scale society that left considerable free space to individuals.
The basic framework of American ascetic Protestantism was also flexible enough to allow the inclusion of non-Protestant groups in the national community, still a "nation under God.
This advance was made possible by its distinctive adaptation of Christian values and its elaboration of denominational pluralism. At the leading edge of social evolution, America was both the most secular and the most religious of modern societies. By the problems it faced and the answers it found, it showed a path toward modernity for others to follow.As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more.
Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. An American sociologist named Talcott Parsons worked in the field of social action theories. He was one of the most influential Sociologists during his time. He was welcomed into this world on 13th December and passed away on 8th May Quotes from Talcott Parsons Concepts for Sociology Talcott Parsons says we are actors playing in a theatre of: social systems, ; personality systems, ; cultural systems, and a ; physical environment, which is the only part that does not inter-act with us.
Talcott Parsons (b. –d. ) was born into the family of a New England Congregational clergyman. His father, Edward Smith Parsons (b.
–d. ), became the president of Marietta College in Ohio in As a student at Amherst College, Parsons had witnessed the president of the.
Alfred Schutz (—) Alfred Schutz philosophized about social science in a broad signification of the word. He was deeply respectful of actual scientific practice, and produced a classification of the sciences; explicated methodological postulates for empirical science in general and the social sciences specifically; and clarified basic concepts for interpretative sociology in particular.
Sociology: Sociology And Sociology - Blue is basically for boys and pink is basically for girls. Society made this rule. As I learned in class on the toy aisles, there is an area for girl toys which are majority pink or house cleaning things for women to do.