In this respect, translation can be understood as a genuine form of cultural human action.
However, this cultural aspect of translation has been neglected throughout the history of translation research due to the fact that translation has been treated as a sub-discipline of applied linguistics and literary studies by scholars.
As a result, translation has been mainly concerned with questions, such as translatability, faithfulness, accuracy, and equivalence. Even though the questions mentioned above have an enormous importance within the boundaries of the field, the newly emerging discipline ought to have embraced the other aspects of translation which had been disregarded before.
The proceeding research which has been carried out in the subsequent years after the Leuven conference played a vital role in the evolution of Translation Studies as an autonomous discipline.
The Leuven seminar not only paved the way for the emergence of the discipline, but also strengthened the idea of translation as a crucial element of interaction between cultures in the decade of the s. One of the most important contributions to this seminar was the participation of the Israeli scholar Itamar Even-Zohar with a paper entitled Translated Literature within the Literary Polysystem which has launched new debates within the realm of the recently evolving field.
In addition to the discussions the study has set forth, the concept of poly systems theory has become the focus of attention.
|Sorry! Something went wrong!||Become a member of TranslationDirectory. Translation, History and Culture takes into account the influence of the publishing industry on ideology, discusses feminist writing, examines translation in the context of colonization, and sees translation as rewriting.|
|Project MUSE - Mulan's Legend and Legacy in China and the United States||Having emerged onto the world stage in the late s, the subject began to be taken seriously, and was no longer seen as an unscientific field of enquiry of secondary importance.|
|Translation, Rewriting, and the Manipulation of Literary Fame - André Lefevere - Google Books||Additional Information In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:|
|References||A diachronic study of the two adapted versions of Hongloumeng as rewritings shows that most of the time the translator has to submissively adapt to the ideological and poetical power structures at different periods of time, yet it is possible for the translator to actively subvert the constraints.|
|All auctions in one place||Drawing upon the notions of polysystem theorists like Itamar Even-Zoharhe theorized translation as a form of rewriting produced and read with a set of ideological and political constraints within the target language cultural system.|
Rewritings can be found in two forms in the literary system as defined by Lefevere: The first, being the obvious types of rewritings, namely the translations, and the second, being the less obvious ones, to wit; criticisms, historiographies and any other form of reference works.
A meticulous reading of this definition, on the other hand, exposes to view the other constituents such as, ideological factors, dominant powers, and current aesthetics of a target society which play a vital role in the formation of a culture.
Consequently, rewritings can —by their very definition— not be innocent. From a positive perspective, though, rewritings, thus translations too, may play the decisive role for the evolution of a society by introducing new thoughts, artistic, and literary components.
This manipulation can be best observed in the case of refractions, —another term of Lefevere— which has a close connection with his concept of rewriting.
In the process, virtually every feature of the original may be changed, or else very little may be changed. Changes will usually fall under three categories: New Perspectives in Literary Studies, Leuven: One factor regulates the literary system mainly from the inside and is represented by professionals who are responsible for the poetics of a society.
Another procures the literary system chiefly from the outside and ensures the relation between literature and the other components of the social system surrounding it.
Dominant powers of a social system are a representative example of this second factor. The powers, being the second factor, impose the parameters within which the professionals try to control the literary system from the inside.
The rudiments of this control, patronage and poetics are thus displayed in every rewriting. Patronage consists of three components: As far as the first rudiment of the double control mechanism is concerned, the very word poetics is suggestive of its precise meaning.
Poetics represented by professionals i. The first one of these components is the inventory component such as genre, certain symbols, characters, and prototypical situations. The second component of poetic is the functional one, which is prone to ideological influences from outside the literary system and determines the role of literature in a society.
In addition to these basic series of constraints, Lefevere states two more restrictions on the translator which merit mentioning. The first one of these supplemental constraints is the universe of discourse and it stands for the subject matter of the source text, the objects, traditions and creeds it gives an account of, which may be disagreeable to the senses of the target society,10 and the second one, the situation of source and target languages themselves which Lefevere expressively places at the bottom of the list he postulates.
Throughout the history of translation, in other words, in the process of reformulation of the codes of a source language in a target language, certain rules emerging from the linguistic aspect of the understanding of translation were observed.
The constraints which are being imposed on the re writers of a society are not absolute restrictions and they are open to change. This feature not only bestows a dynamic function in the same manner as other theories on the systems approach in Translation Studies but also allows the opportunity for one to build bridges between different disciplines by pondering, or even applying, this fruitful framework to other fields of studies.Translation, Rewriting, and the Manipulation of Literary Fame (Routledge Translation Classics) - Kindle edition by Andre Lefevere.
Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. André Lefevere was an obvious choice as a speaker at a colloquium centred on coursebook for students; and Translating, Rewriting, and the Manipulation of Literary Fame, the book that could be arguably considered his major contribution to translation particularly the scholars associated with the American Literary Translators Association.
Lefevere explores how the process of rewriting works of literature manipulates them to ideological and artistic ends, so that the rewritten text can be given a new, sometimes subversive, historical or Reviews: 1.
9 See: Andre Lefevere, Translation, Rewriting and the Manipulation of Literary Fame (London and New York: Routledge) 10 Andre Lefevere, Composing the other, in Susan Bassnett and Harish Trivedi eds.
Postcolonial Translation. The concept “translation as rewriting” was put forward by Lefevere.
According to Theo Hermans (, p. ), Lefevere developed his idea about systems and the place of “rewriting. Applying André Lefevere’s theory of rewriting to a descriptive study of the two adapted translations of Hongloumeng by Wang Jizhen published respectively in and , this paper attempts to investigate the effects the dominant ideology and poetics in a given society at a given time have on the translator’s choice of strategies in the translation process.